Click on Year to see Jewish Civil Rights
restrictions in that year of the Shoah
Text in Red denotes Civil Right (US) violations, today in simplified form. It
is not an inclusive code, but gives a general idea of how these laws and their effects would be viewed in this country. [See KEY at end of
The Years Freedom Died
We find it hard to imagine, living in a nation that guarantees our
civil rights, that all privileges of citizen could one day be taken away on the
basis of our religion, race, or beliefs. In Germany, Poland and occupied
territories during WWII, the at first gradual, and then escalating erasure,
total erasure of civil rights for the Jews took place. Once the National
Socialists took office, immediately, no place for the Jew was found in Germany.
They were no longer citizens, but "unwelcome guests". They were segregated,
degraded, taught against, restricted, disenfranchised not only as citizens but
as human beings and eventually deported and killed. There were three basic ways
1. They Were Socially Ostracized and made the Pariahs of Europe, as well
as the Scapegoats.
2. Laws such as the Nuremberg Laws and other Race Laws were enacted and
enforced to erase all Citizenship Rights of the Jews, or even partial-Jews,
and their friends, spouses and supporters.
3. Policies on the federal and local level were interpreted broadly from
the Laws, to allow almost any cruel and degrading restriction in local
communities. This extended even to such mundane restrictions as no pets, hair
styles, clothing rations or travel to Public
Almost every policy easily fit into the realm of Law, because the
Jews were no longer considered citizens, and therefore could not even fight in
court, as that privilege had also been erased. The Jews of Europe were
dehumanized, abused and killed, not only because of brutal Anti-Semitism, but
first and foremost because of the eradication of Jewish Civil Liberties. Our
nation needs to learn this very important lesson, that in the erosion of Civil
Liberties, is the genesis of Genocide.
Reichsmusikkammer (RMK) formed. All musicians must register or be barred
from Public Performances. Jews who register are easy targets for deportation
later. The "Reich Music Chamber" decides who may play music and what kind. All
Jewish music and Atonality declared 'degenerate', and is believed to lead to the
ruin of German culture and Life. Many musicians removed from University
Boycott of Jewish businesses on sole basis of religious background of
owners. Government sponsored. 1,R,PROC,FT
Jews forbidden to own land in Reich territories.C,PRC,
Jews forbidden to be Editors of Newspapers and Periodicals1,R,F, E.
Germany-wide bookburnings and censorship: Jewish authorship one criteria for
burning; others include any volumes detrimental to the cause of the Reich or
Nordic culture: includes such authors as Mark Twain and J.D. Sallinger.1,F,PROC.
While not just directed to Jews, forced sterilization of 'mentally
defective' enforce.1,P Derelicts, alcoholics and
Homeless subject to imprisonment under "Habitual and Dangerous Criminal Act,
which later included Jews.1,PROC.
8-6-35 Jews in Arts forced to register with Jewish Cultural UnionR,P,E.
Nuremberg Laws: Citizenship in Germany, synonymous with the Reich is defined
by Aryan bloodlines. ("Those of the same blood belong to the same Reich")
Jewishness defined entirely on racial features and inheritance. Restrictions
magnify: includes mundane civil rights restrictions such as banning from public
parks and lands, pet ownership, bicycle ownership and even restrictions against
Nuremberg Synagogue destroyed by Nazis1,R,PROC.
All Jews must add Sarah or Jakob (Israel) to their names.1,R,P,T.
Jewish Property Confiscated, all Jewish-owned property must be registered
Jewish Affairs Bureau office established in Vienna Austria under SS
Office for Jewish Emigration opened, Eichmann establishes
Aryan Businessmen cannot hold businesses for safekeeping that belong to Jews
Evian Conference in July: Hitler criticizes, saying the rest of the world
has no place for Jews either. Costa Rica , Singapore & Hong Kong take some
Jewish emigration: US takes only 900+ of the 6 million killed.
Trade & Commerce restrictions for Jews
Jewish students dismissed and barred from German Public Schools.
Total ban on Public Library usage.
Ban on Driver's License
Further Vocational Restriction: Jews cannot be attorneys or physicians (many
still treat Jews)
Jewish passports marked with large red 'J'.
Krystallnacht: In addition to state-sanctioned violence against Jews,
including many murders and synagogue burnings and business lootings, Jews are
fined one billion marks for clean-up, made to perform the clean-up, forced to
file insurance claims on their businesses and hand over claim monies to the
Reich. Goring (Luftwaffe) arranges the process.
Goering begins to speak of "The Jewish Question", and Hitler of the "Jewish
Germany: Jews forbidden from holding employment in Reich, except for select
few in armament industry.
Jews forbidden from riding city buses, except for work-related
transportation in war effort.
Heydrich begins to mention "Final Goal," or 'Solution' (Endlosung) to
troops of Einsatzgruppen. Complains to Goebbels that more efficient means of
killing necessary because troops are becoming demoralized and tired killing so
many Jews by shootings.
Judenrats established in ghettos.
Jewish Jewelry of value confiscatedPROC,O
Excessive tax Assessment for JewsTAX,PROC
Houses Confiscated: may be rented out in some areas1,PROC,O
Clothing Ration for Jews Cancelled1,PROC,D
Shopping Segregation: Jews may only shop in certain stores.1,D
Part of Food Rations Cancelled for Jews1,PROC,D
Jews forbidden from owning pets: all jewish pets destroyedO,FT,D
Jews restricted then banned from Public RestaurantsJuly 1, 1943: Jews denied
protection of courts and put under police jurisprudence. July 1, 1943: Jews
denied protection of courts and put under police jurisprudence. D,T,FT
Jews banned from City busesT,D,PROC
Yellow Star required upon severe penalties at all times.Differing policies
in areas over the mode of wearing it.D,PROC,FT
Inventories of all Jewish posessions required for DeportationO,D,PROC
January 20, 1942: The Wannsee Conference: Already robbed of all Civil
Liberties, plans are made to force all Jews finally and completely off all
German Lands and territories, veiling thinly the plans for the genocide of the
Jews of Europe.
March 6 1942 First Conference on Sterilization of Jews and Mixed Race
Couples: Guidelines established.
Mid March: Aktion Reinhard The Planned Mass Extermination of the Jews (See
The Final Solution)
June 17, 1942 Confiscation of typewriters, electric appliances.
July 17, 1942: Blind and Deaf Jews have privilege of wearing emblem
designating their disability as an armband: these emblems aided in their safety
in public places, traffic, etc. T,D,FT
July 1942; Berlin Resistance groups in July meet open confrontations
December 17, 1942 Great Britain openly condemns the Massacre of the Jews.
1942: Emmanuel Ringelblum writes of the extermination of the children of the
1942: Germany requires the Jews of occupied Belgium to wear Yellow
October 9, 1942 Jews forbidden to purchase books1,F, D,
P, PROC, FT
Completed ban on Jews on public transportation in Germany.
All Jewish Schools close in Germany
Mass Executions being or are taking place in Belarus, the Ukraine, Auschwitz
Berlin Jews sent to Terezin.
Warsaw Ghetto Jews to Belzec and Treblinka for extermination.
Start of 700,000 murders in one year at Treblinka
August: Lodz Jews deported to killing Centers
August 14: 7000 Jews "without" citizenship arrested in France
October 4: German Concentrations Camps are to be made judenrein: Jew-Free
Oct 18: Citizenship of Jews and those in occupied territories transferred
from Ministry of Justice to the Gestapo.
Oct 27: 2nd Sterilization Conference held.
November: Norwegian Jews to Auschwitz;
Remaining German Jews to Auschwitz for extermination.
July 1, 1943: Jews denied access and protection of court/legal system and
put under police jurisprudence.
January 20-26 Detainees at Terezin sent to Auschwitz
February 15: Bialystok Ghetto emptied: 1000 killed, 10,000 deported to
Treblinka to death
February 27: Jews were allowed to work in armaments even in Berlin until
now. All Jewish Armament workers sent to Auschwitz. (Armament workers were the
only Jews exempt from the Public transportation ban)
March 13: Krakow Ghetto emptied and closed
March: Deportations of Jews from Greece
March : Bermuda Conference on refuge for Jews and other war victims between
US and Britain: no results.
April-June: Destruction of all Jewish Ghettos: Himmler orders
Sept 11: Nice France: German aktions/raids against Jews.
October 18: Jews from Rome sent to Auschwitz: pleas to Vatican which had
promised help went unheard. Vatican did not respond.
First War Crimes trial in Ukraine: December. 1,F, D, FT,
January-end: Liberation of Camps; mostly by Allied Military, occasionally by
Red Cross or Provisional Government takeovers and abandonment.
April: Buchenwald, Bergen-belsen, liberated.
April-May: Last massacres of Jews by fleeing SS at Sachsenhausen and
April: Salt Mine Warehouses discovered with confiscated Arts, Treasures,
Furniture, Antiquities etc.
KEY TO CIVIL RIGHTS VIOLATIONS:
1 - First Ammendment Rights Violation: Freedom of Religion, Free Speech,
Choice. R - Freedom of Worship (overlaps with '1') F - Freedom of Speech
(overlaps with '1') T - Freedom of Movement, Travel E - Employment Rights:
Right to Work Act; D - Discrimination Act of 1967 check AM -Right to Bear
Arms 2nd Ammendment P - Privacy Rights Violation PRESS-Freedom of
Press A - Right to Assemble : PROC - Right to Due Process, Including Fair
and Timely Trials O - Right to Private Ownership of Property, Business,
Assets C - Right to enter into Contracts FT - Fair & Equal Treatment
Under the Law TAX-Right to representation in Taxation